R192 Recommendation concerning Safety and Health in Agriculture
Geneva, 21 giugno 2001
The General Conference of the International Labour Organization,
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, and having met in its 89th Session on 5 June 2001, and
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to safety and health in agriculture, which is the fourth item on the agenda of the session, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of a Recommendation supplementing the Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001 (hereinafter referred to as "the Convention");
adopts this twenty-first day of June of the year two thousand and one the following Recommendation, which may be cited as the Safety and Health in Agriculture Recommendation, 2001.
I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
1. In order to give effect to Article 5 of the Convention, the measures concerning labour inspection in agriculture should be taken in the light of the principles embodied in the Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention and Recommendation, 1969.
2. Multinational enterprises should provide adequate safety and health protection for their workers in agriculture in all their establishments, without discrimination and regardless of the place or country in which they are situated, in accordance with national law and practice and the Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy.
II. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH SURVEILLANCE
3. (1) The competent authority designated to implement the national policy referred to in Article 4 of the Convention should, after consulting the representative organizations of employers and workers concerned:
(a) identify major problems, establish priorities for action, develop effective methods for dealing with them and periodically evaluate the results;
(b) prescribe measures for the prevention and control of occupational hazards in agriculture:
(i) taking into consideration technological progress and knowledge in the field of safety and health, as well as relevant standards, guidelines and codes of practice adopted by recognized national or international organizations;
(ii) taking into account the need to protect the general environment from the impact of agricultural activities;
(iii) specifying the steps to be taken to prevent or control the risk of work-related endemic diseases for workers in agriculture; and
(iv) specifying that no single worker should carry out hazardous work in an isolated or confined area, without an adequate possibility of communication and means of assistance; and
(c) prepare guidelines for employers and workers.
(2) To give effect to Article 4 of the Convention, the competent authority should:
(a) adopt provisions for the progressive extension of appropriate occupational health services for workers in agriculture;
(b) establish procedures for the recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases in agriculture, in particular for the compilation of statistics, the implementation of the national policy and the development of preventive programmes at the level of the undertaking; and
(c) promote safety and health in agriculture by means of educational programmes and materials to meet the needs of agricultural employers and workers.
4. (1) To give effect to Article 7 of the Convention, the competent authority should establish a national system for occupational safety and health surveillance which should include both workers' health surveillance and the surveillance of the working environment.
(2) This system should include the necessary risk assessment and, where appropriate, preventive and control measures with respect to, inter alia:
(a) hazardous chemicals and waste;
(b) toxic, infectious or allergenic biological agents and waste;
(c) irritant or toxic vapours;
(d) hazardous dusts;
(e) carcinogenic substances or agents;
(f) noise and vibration;
(g) extreme temperatures;
(h) solar ultraviolet radiations;
(i) transmissible animal diseases;
(j) contact with wild or poisonous animals;
(k) the use of machinery and equipment, including personal protective equipment;
(l) the manual handling or transport of loads;
(m) intense or sustained physical and mental efforts, work-related stress and inadequate working postures; and
(n) risks from new technologies.
(3) Health surveillance measures for young workers, pregnant and nursing women and aged workers should be taken, where appropriate.
III. PREVENTIVE AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
Risk assessment and management
5. To give effect to Article 7 of the Convention, a set of measures on safety and health at the level of the undertaking should include:
(a) occupational safety and health services;
(b) risk assessment and management measures in the following order of priority:
(i) elimination of the risk;
(ii) control of the risk at the source;
(iii) minimization of the risk by such means as the design of safe work systems, the introduction of technical and organizational measures and safe practices, and training; and
(iv) in so far as the risk remains, provision and use of personal protective equipment and clothing, at no cost to the worker;
(c) measures to deal with accidents and emergencies, including first aid and access to appropriate transportation to medical facilities;
(d) procedures for the recording and notification of accidents and diseases;
(e) appropriate measures to protect persons present at an agricultural site, the population in the vicinity of it and the general environment, from risks which may arise from the agricultural activity concerned, such as those due to agrochemical waste, livestock waste, soil and water contamination, soil depletion and topographic changes; and
(f) measures to ensure that the technology used is adapted to climate, work organization and working practices.
Machinery safety and ergonomics
6. To give effect to Article 9 of the Convention, measures should be taken to ensure the appropriate selection or adaptation of technology, machinery and equipment, including personal protective equipment, taking into account local conditions in user countries and, in particular, ergonomic implications and the effect of climate.
Sound management of chemicals
7. (1) The measures prescribed concerning the sound management of chemicals in agriculture should be taken in the light of the principles of the Chemicals Convention and Recommendation, 1990, and other relevant international technical standards.
(2) In particular, preventive and protective measures to be taken at the level of the undertaking should include:
(a) adequate personal protective equipment and clothing, and washing facilities for those using chemicals and for the maintenance and cleaning of personal protective and application equipment, at no cost to the worker;
(b) spraying and post-spraying precautions in areas treated with chemicals, including measures to prevent pollution of food, drinking, washing and irrigation water sources;
(c) handling and disposal of hazardous chemicals which are no longer required, and containers which have been emptied but which may contain residues of hazardous chemicals, in a manner which eliminates or minimizes the risk to safety and health and to the environment, in accordance with national law and practice;
(d) keeping a register of the application of pesticides used in agriculture; and
(e) training of agricultural workers on a continuing basis to include, as appropriate, training in the practices and procedures or about hazards and on the precautions to be followed in connection with the use of chemicals at work.
Animal handling and protection against biological risks
8. For the purpose of implementing Article 14 of the Convention, the measures for the handling of biological agents giving rise to risks of infection, allergy or poisoning, and for the handling of animals should comprise the following:
(a) risk assessment measures in accordance with Paragraph 5, in order to eliminate, prevent or reduce biological risks;
(b) control and testing of animals, in accordance with veterinary standards and national law and practice, for diseases transmissible to humans;
(c) protective measures for the handling of animals and, where appropriate, provision of protective equipment and clothing;
(d) protective measures for the handling of biological agents and, if necessary, provision of appropriate protective equipment and clothing;
(e) immunization of workers handling animals, as appropriate;
(f) provision of disinfectants and washing facilities, and the maintenance and cleaning of personal protective equipment and clothing;
(g) provision of first aid, antidotes or other emergency procedures in case of contact with poisonous animals, insects or plants;
(h) safety measures for the handling, collection, storage and disposal of manure and waste;
(i) safety measures for the handling and disposal of carcasses of infected animals, including the cleaning and disinfection of contaminated premises; and
(j) safety information including warning signs and training for those workers handling animals.
9. To give effect to Article 15 of the Convention, the safety and health requirements concerning agricultural installations should specify technical standards for buildings, structures, guardrails, fences and confined spaces.
Welfare and accommodation facilities
10. To give effect to Article 19 of the Convention, employers should provide, as appropriate and in accordance with national law and practice, to workers in agriculture:
(a) an adequate supply of safe drinking water;
(b) facilities for the storage and washing of protective clothing;
(c) facilities for eating meals, and for nursing children in the workplace where practicable;
(d) separate sanitary and washing facilities, or separate use thereof, for men and women workers; and
(e) work-related transportation.
IV. OTHER PROVISIONS
11. In order to give effect to Article 18 of the Convention, measures should be taken to ensure assessment of any workplace risks related to the safety and health of pregnant or nursing women, and women's reproductive health.
12. (1) Taking into consideration the views of representative organizations of self-employed farmers, Members should make plans to extend progressively to self-employed farmers the protection afforded by the Convention, as appropriate.
(2) To this end, national laws and regulations should specify the rights and duties of self-employed farmers with respect to safety and health in agriculture.
(3) In the light of national conditions and practice, the views of representative organizations of self-employed farmers should be taken into consideration, as appropriate, in the formulation, implementation and periodic review of the national policy referred to in Article 4 of the Convention.
13. (1) In accordance with national law and practice, measures should be taken by the competent authority to ensure that self-employed farmers enjoy safety and health protection afforded by the Convention.
(2) These measures should include:
(a) provisions for the progressive extension of appropriate occupational health services for self-employed farmers;
(b) progressive development of procedures for including self-employed farmers in the recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases; and
(c) development of guidelines, educational programmes and materials and appropriate advice and training for self-employed farmers covering, inter alia:
(i) their safety and health and the safety and health of those working with them concerning work-related hazards, including the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, the selection and use of chemicals and of biological agents, the design of safe work systems and the selection, use and maintenance of personal protective equipment, machinery, tools and appliances; and
(ii) the prevention of children from engaging in hazardous activities.
14. Where economic, social and administrative conditions do not permit the inclusion of self-employed farmers and their families in a national or voluntary insurance scheme, measures should be taken by Members for their progressive coverage to the level provided for in Article 21 of the Convention. This could be achieved by means of:
(a) developing special insurance schemes or funds; or
(b) adapting existing social security schemes.
15. In giving effect to the above measures concerning self-employed farmers, account should be taken of the special situation of:
(a) small tenants and sharecroppers;
(b) small owner-operators;
(c) persons participating in agricultural collective enterprises, such as members of farmers' cooperatives;
(d) members of the family as defined in accordance with national law and practice;
(e) subsistence farmers; and
(f) other self-employed workers in agriculture, according to national law and practice.
Allegato: C184 Convention concerning Safety and Health in Agriculture, 21 giugno 2001