R111 Recommendation concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation
Geneva, 25 giugno 1958
The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation,
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, and having met in its Forty-second Session on 4 June 1958, and
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to discrimination in the field of employment and occupation, which is the fourth item on the agenda of the session, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of a Recommendation supplementing the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958,
adopts this twenty-fifth day of June of the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight, the following Recommendation, which may be cited as the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Recommendation, 1958:
The Conference recommends that each Member should apply the following provisions:
(1) For the purpose of this Recommendation the term discrimination includes:
(a) any distinction, exclusion or preference made on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin, which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation;
(b) such other distinction, exclusion or preference which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation as may be determined by the Member concerned after consultation with representative employers' and workers' organisations, where such exist, and with other appropriate bodies.
(2) Any distinction, exclusion or preference in respect of a particular job based on the inherent requirements thereof is not deemed to be discrimination. (3) For the purpose of this Recommendation the terms employment and occupation include access to vocational training, access to employment and to particular occupations, and terms and conditions of employment.
II. Formulation and Application of Policy
2. Each Member should formulate a national policy for the prevention of discrimination in employment and occupation. This policy should be applied by means of legislative measures, collective agreements between representative employers' and workers' organisations or in any other manner consistent with national conditions and practice, and should have regard to the following principles:
(a) the promotion of equality of opportunity and treatment in employment and occupation is a matter of public concern;
(b) all persons should, without discrimination, enjoy equality of opportunity and treatment in respect of:
(i) access to vocational guidance and placement services;
(ii) access to training and employment of their own choice on the basis of individual suitability for such training or employment;
(iii) advancement in accordance with their individual character, experience, ability and diligence;
(iv) security of tenure of employment;
(v) remuneration for work of equal value;
(vi) conditions of work including hours of work, rest periods, annual holidays with pay, occupational safety and occupational health measures, as well as social security measures and welfare facilities and benefits provided in connection with employment;
(c) government agencies should apply non-discriminatory employment policies in all their activities;
(d) employers should not practise or countenance discrimination in engaging or training any person for employment, in advancing or retaining such person in employment, or in fixing terms and conditions of employment; nor should any person or organisation obstruct or interfere, either directly or indirectly, with employers in pursuing this principle;
(e) in collective negotiations and industrial relations the parties should respect the principle of equality of opportunity and treatment in employment and occupation, and should ensure that collective agreements contain no provisions of a discriminatory character in respect of access to, training for, advancement in or retention of employment or in respect of the terms and conditions of employment;
(f) employers' and workers' organisations should not practise or countenance discrimination in respect of admission, retention of membership or participation in their affairs.
3. Each Member should:
(a) ensure application of the principles of non-discrimination:
(i) in respect of employment under the direct control of a national authority;
(ii) in the activities of vocational guidance, vocational training and placement services under the direction of a national authority;
(b) promote their observance, where practicable and necessary, in respect of other employment and other vocational guidance, vocational training and placement services by such methods as:
(i) encouraging state, provincial or local government departments or agencies and industries and undertakings operated under public ownership or control to ensure the application of the principles;
(ii) making eligibility for contracts involving the expenditure of public funds dependent on observance of the principles;
(iii) making eligibility for grants to training establishments and for a licence to operate a private employment agency or a private vocational guidance office dependent on observance of the principles.
4. Appropriate agencies, to be assisted where practicable by advisory committees composed of representatives of employers' and workers' organisations, where such exist, and of other interested bodies, should be established for the purpose of promoting application of the policy in all fields of public and private employment, and in particular:
(a) to take all practicable measures to foster public understanding and acceptance of the principles of non-discrimination;
(b) to receive, examine and investigate complaints that the policy is not being observed and, if necessary by conciliation, to secure the correction of any practices regarded as in conflict with the policy; and
(c) to consider further any complaints which cannot be effectively settled by conciliation and to render opinions or issue decisions concerning the manner in which discriminatory practices revealed should be corrected.
5. Each Member should repeal any statutory provisions and modify any administrative instructions or practices which are inconsistent with the policy.
6. Application of the policy should not adversely affect special measures designed to meet the particular requirements of persons who, for reasons such as sex, age, disablement, family responsibilities or social or cultural status are generally recognised to require special protection or assistance.
7. Any measures affecting an individual who is justifiably suspected of, or engaged in, activities prejudicial to the security of the State should not be deemed to be discrimination, provided that the individual concerned has the right to appeal to a competent body established in accordance with national practice.
8. With respect to immigrant workers of foreign nationality and the members of their families, regard should be had to the provisions of the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949, relating to equality of treatment and the provisions of the Migration for Employment Recommendation (Revised), 1949, relating to the lifting of restrictions on access to employment.
9. There should be continuing co-operation between the competent authorities, representatives of employers and workers and appropriate bodies to consider what further positive measures may be necessary in the light of national conditions to put the principles of non-discrimination into effect.
III. Co-ordination of Measures for the Prevention of Discrimination in All Fields
10. The authorities responsible for action against discrimination in employment and occupation should co-operate closely and continuously with the authorities responsible for action against discrimination in other fields in order that measures taken in all fields may be co-ordinated.