R117 Recommendation concerning Vocational Training
Geneva, 27 giugno 1962
The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation,
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, and having met in its Forty-sixth Session on 6 June 1962, and
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to vocational training, which is the fourth item on the agenda of the session, with a view to superseding the Vocational Training Recommendation, 1939, the Apprenticeship Recommendation, 1939, and the Vocational Training (Adults) Recommendation, 1950, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of a Recommendation, and
Noting that the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation has in preparation a recommendation on technical education,
adopts this twenty-seventh day of June of the year one thousand nine hundred and sixty-two, the following Recommendation, which may be cited as the Vocational Training Recommendation, 1962:
I. General Principles
1. This Recommendation applies to all training designed to prepare or retrain any person for initial or later employment or promotion in any branch of economic activity, including such general, vocational and technical education as may be necessary to that end, except:
(a) training for management or for supervisory posts above the level of foreman in industry or the equivalent in other branches of economic activity;
(b) training for seafarers, which continues to be governed by the Vocational Training (Seafarers) Recommendation, 1946;
(c) training in agriculture, which continues to be governed by the Vocational Training (Agriculture) Recommendation, 1956.
(1) Training is not an end in itself, but a means of developing a person's occupational capacities, due account being taken of the employment opportunities, and of enabling him to use his abilities to the greatest advantage of himself and the community; it should be designed to develop personality, particularly where young persons are concerned.
(2) Training is a single whole characterised by the interdependence of its various parts.
(3) Training is a process continuing throughout the working life of the individual according to his needs as an individual and as a member of the community.
(4) Training should be free from any form of discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin.
(5) Training requires the continuous co-operation of all the bodies and persons concerned with any aspect of it, as set forth in Paragraph 11.
II. National Planning and Administration
(1) Each country should have a network of training facilities, adjusted as regards number, location and curricula to the economic requirements and employment possibilities of the country as a whole or, where more appropriate, of each region or locality, to meet the training needs of the residents of the country.
(2) The network should be so designed as to facilitate transfer from one type of training to another and access to successive stages and different levels of training, so that an individual may be able to reach the highest level of training within his capacity and in accordance with his inclination.
(3) The avenues of entry to occupations, particularly the trades, should be sufficient to meet the requirements of all branches of economic activity and the varied abilities, interests and circumstances of individual trainees.
(4) Where national circumstances do not permit the development of a full national network, the country concerned should consider collaborating with neighbouring countries in developing a common network or in establishing one or more common training institutions.
(1) The respective responsibilities of public authorities concerned with training matters should be clearly defined.
(2) The public authorities and the various public and private bodies in each country which deal with training should, while allowing free play to initiative and ensuring adaptability to the requirements of the different branches of economic activity, regions and localities, co-operate in developing fully co-ordinated training facilities:
(a) on the basis of a general programme centrally planned;
(b) on a voluntary basis with the assistance of appropriate machinery; or
(c) by a combination of these methods.
(3) Whichever method is adopted, the measures to be taken to develop the facilities referred to in subparagraph (2) should, while respecting the freedom of occupational choice of the candidates, include measures for:
(a) the determination of the scope and character of training requirements and of the facilities available;
(b) the determination of the occupations for which training should be given priority without neglecting other occupations and the training of the persons required for them;
(c) the determination of the occupations for which standards of qualification are considered necessary or desirable, the setting and application of such standards, the establishment of appropriate training curricula, and the setting and application of standards for the examinations on completion of training in these occupations;
(d) the setting and application of standards relating to the conditions and methods of training;
(e) the setting and application of standards for training institutions, particularly those offering training for occupations in respect of which standards of qualification have been set;
(f) the setting and application of standards of qualification for teaching staff in training institutions;
(g) the provision, according to circumstances, of technical help and financial assistance to the institutions and undertakings providing training.
(4) Where a general programme has been adopted, the competent authorities should ensure that the measures taken to give effect to it include the measures set out in subparagraph (3).
(5) Where co-ordination is developed voluntarily, the measures set out in subparagraph (3) should be the responsibility of the authorities and bodies referred to in subparagraph (2) in their fields of competence.
(6) The standards referred to in subparagraph (3) should, whenever possible, be applicable throughout the territory of the Member.
(7) When this is not possible, recommended standards should be drawn up to serve as a guide to the setting of standards which are as uniform as possible throughout the country.
(8) In developing the fully co-ordinated training facilities referred to in subparagraph (2), due account should be taken of the following:
(a) the occupational interest and the cultural and moral requirements of the individual, the labour requirements, and the economic and social interests of the community;
(b) national education and training policies;
(c) existing and projected facilities for general education, vocational guidance, and selection;
(d) existing and projected training facilities, including facilities for vocational and technical education;
(e) the structure of and trend of development in the employment market;
(f) national economic policy and development;
(g) the demographic situation and anticipated changes;
(h) anticipated changes in techniques and methods of organisation of work;
(i) the existence of any population groups which, because of geographic isolation, ethnic differences or for any other reason, call for special consideration.
(9) The fully co-ordinated training facilities should be kept under review and steps should be taken as necessary to keep them abreast of changing requirements.
(10) The development of the fully co-ordinated training facilities should be undertaken on a national scale with the collaboration of the authorities concerned with the different aspects of the problem which are mentioned in subparagraph (8) and of other interested parties.
(1) Co-operation at the national level should be achieved by means of some appropriate body or bodies fully representative of the interests concerned.
(2) The body or bodies should be assisted by similarly representative bodies set up as necessary at the regional and local levels.
6. Advisory committees representative of branches of economic activity or of occupations should be established to collaborate with the bodies referred to in Paragraph 5 in assessing training requirements for the occupations with which they are concerned and developing training programmes for these occupations.
(1) Training in publicly operated training institutions should be given without charge to the trainee.
(2) This should not however preclude institutions from making a charge where the trainee is not under an obligation to attend the course or does not require training in order to obtain or retain employment.
(3) During training in training institutions which is provided or approved by the competent authority, adults not in receipt of remuneration and young persons in need should, in so far as economic and financial resources permit, receive adequate allowances from the competent authority fixed with due regard to:
(a) any unemployment benefit or any other allowance which they may receive;
(b) other factors, such as family responsibilities, cost of living in the district concerned, special personal expenses connected with the training such as expenses for transport or housing, and, in special cases, age;
(c) the need to encourage adults to undertake and complete training in accordance with the requirements of the employment market and the requirements of the community for trained persons.
(4) Persons training in undertakings should be adequately remunerated, in accordance with criteria established by law or regulation, by collective agreement or by the rules of the undertaking concerned.
(5) Attendance at publicly operated training institutions and at approved private institutions of a similar nature and participation in other approved forms of training should be facilitated as circumstances require by the grant of economic assistance in such forms as free meals, provision of working clothes, tools, equipment and textbooks, free transport or reduction in the cost of transport, maintenance or family allowances, scholarships, loans or bursaries, or provision of lodging.
(1) Measures should be taken to ensure that the conditions of work of persons, particularly young persons, who are receiving training, whether in an undertaking or a training institution, are satisfactory, and in particular that the work done by them is suitably restricted so that it is essentially of an educative character.
(2) The work of trainees in training institutions should not be primarily intended for commercial profit.
(3) Training institutions and undertakings in which training is given should be responsible for ensuring that rules and standards governing safety and the protection of the trainees while at work exist and are observed.
(1) Training for occupations for which national standards of qualification have been set should include examinations for which the standards have been uniformly fixed at a high level of reliability and validity, and the necessary measures should be taken to ensure the observance of these examination standards.
(2) The certificates issued as a result of such examinations should be recognised throughout the country.
(3) Even when no national standards of qualification exist, it is desirable that persons who have completed any systematic course of training should receive a certificate to that effect from the training institution or undertaking; such a certificate should state the essential and main elements of the training given.
10. Persons completing a training course should be assisted by the placement authorities of the country concerned in obtaining work corresponding to the skill and knowledge they have acquired, the free choice of the place of work being guaranteed.
III. Arrangements for Co-operation
(1) All those concerned with training and particularly public authorities, educational bodies and employers' and workers' organisations should take every opportunity of mutual assistance and consultation in planning, developing and operating training schemes, and in dealing with training questions generally.
(2) Provision should be made for all those responsible for training to visit the training site regularly in order to keep abreast with the conditions in which the training is being given.
(3) Representatives of employers' and workers' organisations should be included in the bodies responsible for governing publicly operated training institutions and for supervising their technical operation; where such bodies do not exist, representatives of employers' and workers' organisations should be brought in other ways into close association with the running of such institutions.
(4) Co-operation should be maintained and promoted between training institutions, or the competent authority providing the instruction, and undertakings, especially in cases where training is given partly within an undertaking and partly in training institutions outside the undertaking.
(5) Without prejudice to the generality of subparagraph (1) and to the extent possible in the national circumstances:
(a) educational and training bodies, employers' and workers' organisations and others directly concerned should collaborate in:
(i) defining the occupations for which standards of qualification are considered necessary or desirable;
(ii) establishing such standards and the appropriate training curricula;
(iii) conducting the appropriate examinations and determining the nature and status of the qualifications obtainable;
(b) there should be the fullest co-operation in the collection and dissemination of information about training opportunities referred to in Paragraph 12, in which the primary and secondary schools, technical and vocational education institutions, educational authorities, vocational guidance services, employment counselling services, public employment services, employers' and workers' organisations, professional institutions and undertakings should participate;
(c) the assistance provided by the public employment services should also include:
(i) the study of employment market trends;
(ii) the assessment of current and future manpower needs;
(iii) the placement of the trained personnel.
IV. Information about Training Opportunities
(1) Information about training opportunities for every occupation should be continuously collected and be available to all interested persons and agencies.
(2) This information should deal with such matters as:
(a) the types of training available;
(b) the duration of the various types of training;
(c) the conditions for access to the various types of training;
(d) the characteristics of each type of training in relation to the prospects of employment or promotion;
(e) the nature and conditions of any financial or other assistance obtainable by persons while undergoing training;
(f) the examinations following such training and the qualifications obtainable.
(3) The methods by which such information may be disseminated should include as appropriate all or any of the following: interviews, lectures, brochures, articles, posters, films, film strips, radio and television talks, visits to undertakings, and occupational exhibitions.
V. Arrangements for Vocational Guidance and Selection
(1) Candidates for training, and in particular those who have not yet received any training, should be able to have the benefit of individual guidance from the competent vocational guidance or employment counselling bodies before they enter a line of training or choose an occupation.
(2) Workers should have the possibility of benefiting, within the framework of the employment services, from an employment counselling system with a view to their guidance, their retraining or their further training.
(1) The selection of trainees should be conducted in conformity with the requirements and specific nature of individual occupations, without prejudice to the freedom of occupational choice.
(2) The selection procedure should be so designed as to reduce to a minimum the risk of accepting persons for training in occupations for which they are not suited and the consequent risk of wastage of training and human effort.
(3) The selection procedure should include provision for ascertaining that trainees have the physical and mental capacity required for the training and occupation in view.
(4) When medical examinations form part of the selection procedure, they should be based on the specific requirements of the training and occupation in view.
(5) When psychological tests form part of the selection procedure, they should be suited to the conditions of the country concerned, be sufficiently reliable, and be valid in terms of criteria directly related to the requirements of the occupation in view.
VI. Prevocational Preparation
(1) Prevocational preparation should provide young persons who have not yet entered employment with an introduction to a variety of forms of work; it should not be pursued to the detriment of general education, nor should it replace the first phase of actual training.
(2) The prevocational preparation should include such general and practical instruction appropriate to the ages of the young persons as are calculated to:
(a) continue and supplement the education already received;
(b) give an idea of and develop a taste and esteem for practical work and develop an interest in training;
(c) disclose vocational interests and aptitudes, and thus assist in vocational guidance;
(d) facilitate future vocational adjustment.
(3) The prevocational preparation should include, wherever possible, familiarisation with the equipment and materials common to a number of occupations.
VII. Organisation of Training
(1) The training curriculum for each occupation should be worked out on the basis of a systematic analysis of the work, skills, knowledge, and health and safety factors involved in that occupation, due account being taken of developments and foreseeable changes therein.
(2) The training curriculum should be periodically reviewed to keep it up to date.
(1) The training curriculum should provide for all trainees a sound basis of theoretical and practical knowledge.
(2) In addition to instruction in the work, skills, knowledge, and health and safety factors involved in the occupations concerned, and in the elements of social legislation, trainees should as far as possible be provided with background knowledge related to the occupations and to the branches of economic activity in which they wish to engage, with a view, in particular, to facilitating promotion.
(3) Subjects of general educational value should be included in the curriculum for long-term training and, so far as the time available permits, for short-term training.
(1) Curricula and training plans should be so drawn up as to facilitate the future adaptability of the trainee within the general framework of the occupation concerned.
(2) For this purpose care should be taken in long-term training:
(a) to enable the trainee to acquire a wide grasp of the theoretical principles underlying the practice of his occupation;
(b) to avoid specialisation in the early period of training so as to provide the trainee with a broad basis of skill and knowledge on which subsequent specialisation can be built with a minimum of additional training or retraining.
(1) Undertakings not in a position to furnish their trainees with all the theoretical and practical knowledge required for a particular occupation should as necessary:
(a) arrange for the deficiency to be made up in training institutions on the basis of one or more of the following:
(i) day release;
(ii) release for periods of several weeks at a time every year;
(iii) alternating substantial periods of training within the undertaking with substantial periods of study in the training institution;
(iv) other suitable training arrangements in accordance with national regulations;
(b) establish and operate joint training schemes involving the use of their several facilities or the establishment of a common training centre.
(2) Trainees from undertakings attending training institutions under the arrangements referred to in subparagraph (1) should be released for this purpose during working hours without loss of pay.
20. Undertakings should co-operate in the implementation of training schemes established by training institutions by providing substantial periods of practical on-the-job training for institution students.
(1) Supplementary courses in further general education and technical knowledge relating to the occupations in which they are engaged should be available up to the age of 18 years for all young workers who are not receiving other training.
(2) The young workers should be enabled to attend these courses on the conditions provided for in Paragraph 19 (2).
22. Supplementary courses should be available to all workers who wish to improve their general, technical or commercial knowledge in order to facilitate their promotion and thus to improve their social and economic standing.
23. The duration of training should be determined having regard to:
(a) the level and type of skill and knowledge to be attained;
(b) the methods and means of training to be employed;
(c) the minimum entrance qualifications required and the qualifications actually possessed by the trainees on entrance;
(d) in the case of adults, their past work experience and the need to qualify them as rapidly as possible for employment.
24. Special attention should be given to the training of young persons and adults with physical or mental disabilities as well as to the training of young persons with little ability.
VIII. Methods and Means of Training
25. Training methods should be adapted to the nature of the course, the educational level, age and status of the trainees and their previous experience.
26. As a general rule, active and participatory methods should be preferred to the one-way communication of knowledge.
(1) Training should be as realistic as possible.
(2) Practical training in training institutions should:
(a) be given in conditions and surroundings as similar as possible to those of an undertaking;
(b) if possible and necessary, include or be completed by periods of practical experience in an undertaking so that trainees may not only become familiar with a working atmosphere but are also enabled to acquire normal work speed and skill on the job.
(1) Practical training not given on the job should include the performance of the operations involved in the occupation and, in suitable cases, real work experience.
(2) Such work experience should be appropriate to the needs of the training, and there should be proper safeguards against the employment of trainees in competition with the ordinary workers.
(3) In training on the job, work assigned to trainees should have real training value.
29. Training exercises should be so designed that trainees can see the practical application of what they are doing and the usefulness of any article produced.
(1) Complex operations should be broken down into their simple elements.
(2) Trainees should be enabled to acquire facility in performing one operation before proceeding to the next and should move from the simple to the complex.
31. Theory, including general education given as part of a training course, should be taught as far as possible in relation to the occupation in view.
32. Technical and related instruction should be linked with the practical training and, when possible, be integrated with it.
33. The pace of instruction should be adjusted to the trainees' capacity to learn, and should allow for revision from time to time.
34. Steps should be taken to provide systematic technical supervision of trainees, particularly in the case of training on the job.
35. A careful record should be kept of the training and progress made and, in addition, the trainees should be encouraged to keep their own detailed record of the training received and to develop the habit of checking their own performances.
(1) Instructional aids should be used whenever appropriate to facilitate the learning process.
(2) The responsible training authorities should keep abreast of newly developed training techniques and instructional materials and aids, and should ensure their use.
37. When training facilities, particularly in isolated areas, do not meet the training needs of the local population, they should be supplemented as appropriate by one or more of the following:
(a) correspondence courses adapted to local circumstances;
(b) itinerant teachers and mobile demonstration units;
(c) instruction by radio, television or other means of mass communication;
(d) release of trainees from undertakings for several weeks at a time every year to attend courses at a training institution in another locality;
(e) other measures enabling training to be obtained in some other locality, such as grants, scholarships and assistance with travel or accommodation.
IX. Training by Undertakings
(1) Employers should establish policies in regard to the action required to meet their need for trained personnel.
(2) Individual employers or groups of employers should be encouraged to develop systematic training schemes in accordance with their employment requirements, to such an extent as the technical operating conditions of their undertakings permit.
39. Employers should consult and co-operate with representatives of workers employed in their undertakings in the preparation and carrying out of training schemes therein.
40. The responsibility within an undertaking for training matters should be clearly allocated either to a special training department or to one or more persons on a full-time or part-time basis depending on the nature and extent of the training requirements of the undertaking.
41. The functions of departments or persons responsible for training should include:
(a) suggesting training policies;
(b) ensuring in consultation with the departments concerned that training schemes are prepared;
(c) participating in the selection of trainees;
(d) ensuring the training of instructional staff;
(e) supervising training within the undertaking;
(f) making arrangements on behalf of the undertaking concerning any instruction that has to be given outside the undertaking and for the co-ordination of such instruction with that given within the undertaking;
(g) establishing and maintaining progress records of trainees;
(h) ensuring that the training takes proven methods into account;
(i) undertaking, encouraging or sponsoring research and follow-up studies to ensure that training is efficient and up to date.
42. Where appropriate, undertakings should arrange for their trainees to be given a substantial initial period of broad basic training wholly in a training institution, with a view to reducing the over-all duration of the training period and increasing training efficiency.
43. At all stages of their training, whether within or outside the undertaking, trainees should remain, with respect to their training, under the general supervision and control of the training department or person responsible for training.
(1) In deciding where training should be given within an undertaking, the following factors should be taken into consideration:
(a) the nature and duration of training;
(b) the number, age, knowledge and experience of the trainees;
(c) the adequacy of training on the job for the occupation;
(d) the congestion, noise or other distractions, safety factors and risks of damage to equipment in the normal workplace;
(e) any saving in time, teaching staff and equipment;
(f) the cost of separate accommodation;
(g) the need to facilitate the transition from training to work to the greatest extent possible;
(h) the technical possibilities of the undertaking.
(2) Separate instructional accommodation or at least an instructional area set apart in the normal workplace and having the equipment necessary for training should be provided, whenever practicable, in the early stages of training.
(1) Undertakings should provide for the reception of all new entrants on arrival and organise a period of induction for them.
(2) Special care should be taken with the initiation of young workers in the light of their need for training.
46. Systematic long-term training for a recognised occupation taking place substantially within an undertaking or under an independent craftsman should be governed by a written contract of apprenticeship and be subject to established standards.
47. In deciding whether a particular occupation should be recognised as apprenticeable, account should be taken of such matters as:
(a) the degree of skill and theoretical technical knowledge required for the occupation in question;
(b) the period of training necessary for the acquisition of the required skill and knowledge;
(c) the suitability of apprenticeship training for imparting the required skill and knowledge;
(d) the current and anticipated employment situation within the occupation in question.
(1) The contract of apprenticeship should be entered into either with an individual employer, a group of employers, or a body such as an apprenticeship committee or service specially entrusted with the control of apprenticeship, as may be most appropriate to the national circumstances.
(2) Where the apprentice is a minor, a parent, guardian or legal representative should be included in the contract as a party.
(3) The parties responsible for providing the apprenticeship should either themselves be properly qualified to give the training or be in a position to arrange for the training to be given by a person or persons so qualified, and the facilities available for training the apprentice should be such as will enable him to secure complete training for the occupation being taught.
(4) The competent authority should remain in regular contact with the undertaking or person providing the training, and should ensure, by means of regular inspection or supervision, that the objectives of the apprenticeship are being achieved.
49. The contract should:
(a) contain an express or implied obligation to train in a particular occupation in return for an obligation of the same nature to serve as an apprentice during the period of apprenticeship;
(b) incorporate such of the standards and regulations established for the occupation in question as may be necessary or desirable in the interests of the parties;
(c) provide for such other mutual rights and obligations as may be relevant and not otherwise covered, including especially the observance of all safety regulations;
(d) provide for the settlement of disputes between the parties.
50. According to the circumstances in the country concerned, an occupation may be recognised as apprenticeable, and the standards referred to in Paragraph 46 and any regulations concerning apprenticeship may be established by:
(a) statutory enactments;
(b) decisions of bodies specially entrusted with the control of apprenticeship;
(c) collective agreements; or
(d) a combination of these various methods.
51. Particular account should be taken of the following matters in the standards and regulations governing apprenticeship in respect of each recognised apprenticeable occupation:
(a) the educational qualifications and minimum age governing entry into apprenticeship;
(b) provision for special cases of workers whose age exceeds the specified maximum age;
(c) the duration of apprenticeship including the period of probation, having regard to the degree of skill and theoretical technical knowledge required;
(d) measures for determining the extent to which the normal duration of the apprenticeship might be reduced in the light of any prior training or experience the apprentice may have had or of his progress during the apprenticeship;
(e) the schedule of work processes, the theory and related instruction to be given, and the time to be spent on each unit;
(f) the provision of day release, or such other forms of release as may be appropriate, for attendance at a training institution;
(g) the examinations to be held during or on the expiry of the apprenticeship;
(h) the qualifications or certificates obtainable on completion of apprenticeship;
(i) any control of the number of apprentices necessary to ensure adequate training, avoid overcrowding in the occupation, and meet the manpower needs of the particular branch of economic activity concerned;
(j) the rate of remuneration payable to the apprentice and the scale of increases during the apprenticeship;
(k) the conditions of remuneration in case of absence through sickness;
(l) accident insurance;
(m) holidays with pay;
(n) the nature and extent of the supervision to be exercised over the apprenticeship, particularly with a view to ensuring that the rules governing the apprenticeship are observed, that the training is in keeping with established standards and that there is reasonable uniformity in the conditions of apprenticeship;
(o) the registration of apprentices and apprenticeship contracts with appropriate bodies;
(p) the form and content of the apprenticeship contract.
52. Apprentices should receive comprehensive safety instruction so as to develop safe working habits in the use of tools and machinery and learn to observe general safety measures, taking into account new hazards as they arise.
(1) Entry into apprenticeship should in every case be preceded by comprehensive vocational guidance and by a medical examination related to the requirements of the occupation for which training is to be given.
(2) Where the occupation in view calls for special physical qualities or mental aptitudes, these should be specified and verified by special tests.
(1) It should be possible by agreement among all parties concerned to transfer an apprentice from one undertaking to another when this is considered necessary or desirable for the completion of his training.
(2) Where several types of apprenticeship exist, it should be possible by agreement among all parties concerned for an apprentice to transfer from one type to another when his aptitudes show that this would be to his advantage.
XI. Accelerated Training
(1) Permanent arrangements for accelerated training should be organised:
(a) to assist in meeting urgent needs for trained manpower and in quickening the rate of industrialisation;
(b) as a permanent means of adapting manpower to technical progress;
(c) for those categories of the population who need to achieve occupational competence quickly in order to obtain employment suitable to their age and capacity;
(d) to further the development of occupational and social upgrading.
(2) These permanent arrangements for accelerated training should be planned in accordance with appropriate pedagogical methods, be implemented by instructors specially trained for the purpose and be based on concrete techniques directly related to industrial work.
56. The acceleration of training should be achieved by:
(a) applying strict selection procedures in order to ensure as far as possible that all trainees admitted have the ability to acquire the necessary knowledge and proficiency in the limited time set for the course, preference being given to candidates who also possess occupational experience of value to the new occupations;
(b) using a detailed syllabus setting out the graduated exercises and related theory which will provide trainees with the skills and knowledge immediately essential for obtaining employment and based on exhaustive analyses of the occupation and of the work involved in it;
(c) concentrating on practical training and teaching the indispensable theoretical technical knowledge in the course of practical training;
(d) limiting the number of trainees in each class to such an extent that, having regard to the time available, each one may receive constant and close supervision thoughout all stages of his instruction;
(e) applying such of the other methods and means of training referred to in Paragraphs 25 to 37 as may be found particularly appropriate.
(1) After finishing an accelerated training course the trainee should as soon as possible be placed in employment where, after induction, his training should be completed if necessary by on-the-job training.
(2) Persons who have completed accelerated training and who are thereafter taking part in the production process should have the opportunity to participate in courses which should be organised for the purpose of increasing their versatility and skills.
XII. Training of Supervisors up to the Level of Foremen
(1) Supervisors should receive special training to ensure that they are fully equipped for their duties.
(2) Such training should include as necessary:
(a) further general education;
(b) further technical training and experience;
(c) instruction in:
(i) leadership and human relations, including industrial relations and procedures for the avoidance and settlement of disputes;
(ii) administrative procedures;
(iii) teaching method;
(iv) occupational safety and hygiene;
(v) co-ordination at the different levels of the undertaking;
(vi) adaptation to duties of responsibility;
(vii) methods of work;
(viii) labour legislation;
(ix) specialised spheres of activity such as planning, work study and costing.
(3) Supervisors should be sufficiently informed about vocational counselling to recognise its role and importance and the necessity for it to be given by specialists in this field.
(1) In principle initial supervisor training should be given before the assumption of supervisory duties; if this is not practicable, it should be given immediately after the assumption of such duties.
(2) Further training should be given to supervisors on a continuing basis; it should include the provision of information about developments generally within the undertaking and in the supervisor's own technical field and should provide the basis for promotion in appropriate cases.
XIII. Teaching Staff in Training Institutions and Undertakings
60. The selection of teaching staff should be carried out with due regard to: (a) general education, technical qualifications and experience, character and personality, and aptitude for teaching;
(b) the persons they will be called upon to teach;
(c) the nature of the teaching;
(d) any applicable national standards.
61. Teaching staff responsible for general education subjects should be recruited from among persons with the qualifications normally required of teachers of these subjects in general educational institutions.
62. Teaching staff responsible for theoretical technical courses should be recruited, according to the type of training involved:
(a) from among persons who have been trained for and have had several years' practical experience in the occupation they are to teach, in addition to having a sound theoretical knowledge of it and a good background of general education, as well as teaching ability; or
(b) from persons with appropriate practical experience as well as a degree or diploma awarded after appropriate training in a university, technical institution or teachers' training college or by a body approved by the public authorities.
(1) Teaching staff responsible for practical courses should be recruited from among persons with the qualifications specified in clause (a) of Paragraph 62.
(2) When it is not possible to recruit, for practical courses, teaching staff with all the desirable qualifications, greater importance should be attached to technical competence, occupational experience and teaching ability than to a high level of general education.
64. Teaching staff responsible for courses in supervisory functions should be recruited from among persons who have been trained as supervisors and have had several years' experience in that capacity in addition to having a good background of technical training and general education.
65. Use should be made as far as possible of the experience of persons from industry, commerce or the professions by employing them as part-time teachers of special subjects in training institutions.
66. In principle initial teacher training should be given before the assumption of teaching duties; if this is not practicable it should be given immediately after the assumption of such duties.
(1) Teaching staff employed either full time or part time in training institutions or in undertakings should receive special training, including teaching practice, for the purpose of developing their teaching ability and, where necessary, their technical qualifications and general education.
(2) The provision of such teaching practice for the teaching staff of training institutions should be facilitated by combining teacher training institutions as far as possible with ordinary training institutions.
(3) Teaching staff in training institutions and undertakings should receive special training on the subject of safety, with emphasis on safe working conditions and the safe use of tools and appliances used in the occupations in which they instruct.
(4) Further training should be made available to teaching personnel on a continuing basis; it should include provision for them to keep abreast with teaching and technical developments and to qualify for promotion.
(5) The following should also be taken into consideration as a means of further training:
(a) the organisation of periodical visits to undertakings or training institutions and of special courses such as in-service, weekend or holiday courses for individual teachers or groups of teachers;
(b) the grant, in special cases, of travelling or research scholarships or special leave with or without pay.
68. Teachers of general education and theoretical technical subjects should, as part of their training, acquire knowledge of the branch of activity which their trainees are intended to enter or have already entered.
69. Full-time teachers responsible for practical courses in training institutions should be enabled to carry out practical work in undertakings from time to time.
70. The training of staff responsible for courses in supervisory functions should include further instruction in the subjects listed in Paragraph 58 as may be required, and instruction in methods and techniques of supervisory training.
(1) In order to attract and retain an efficient teaching staff in training institutions, the conditions of employment of such staff should compare favourably with those enjoyed by persons with similar knowledge and experience employed elsewhere on other than teaching duties, due account being taken of the extra qualifications required for teaching.
(2) A similar policy should be applied to teaching staff within undertakings.
72. Where national standards of qualification for teaching staff in training institutions have been established, undertakings giving training should be encouraged to apply such standards when appropriate to their own teaching staff.
73. Persons concerned with the direct supervision or technical administration of training institutions should, if possible, have had both production and teaching experience.
74. The teaching staff of training institutions should be regularly inspected or supervised by the competent authorities with a view to assisting them in their work and improving the instruction given.
XIV. Countries in Process of Industrialisation
(1) Industrialising countries should aim at developing their training systems progressively in accordance with the provisions of this Recommendation.
(2) They should pay primary attention to establishing an inventory of their current and future manpower needs and resources.
(3) A plan should be drawn up for the establishment and development of training facilities to meet these needs, giving due priority as circumstances require to:
(a) the creation of a body of competent teaching staff;
(b) the provision and equipment of the necessary training premises;
(c) the development of the most appropriate training schemes, including literacy courses for illiterate trainees.
(4) The plan should be put into operation in accordance with the priorities established.
(1) Industrialising countries should take special measures to meet the training needs of:
(a) persons in rural areas in which it is intended to establish industrial activities;
(b) persons who have left rural areas and seek industrial employment in urban areas.
(2) Such measures should include the establishment, particularly in rural areas, of special training institutions, such as simple training work-shops covering a few basic trades, and the adaptation of training methods to suit the level of education and degree of advancement of the rural groups in the localities concerned.
(3) The training in rural areas should take account of the possibility of developing new economic activities which utilise the natural resources of the area and are in keeping with the cultural traditions of the local population.
77. Industrialising countries should examine the desirability of:
(a) establishing joint training facilities with adjacent countries;
(b) obtaining international assistance in the implementation of their training plans.
XV. International Co-operation
(1) Countries should co-operate in the field of training to the greatest extent possible and, where desired, with the help of international organisations.
(2) Such co-operation should extend to such measures as:
(a) the organisation of seminars and working parties on training matters of mutual interest;
(b) making available training facilities to enable selected personnel from other countries, either on an exchange basis or otherwise, to acquire skill, knowledge and experience not available in their own country;
(c) the organisation of visits abroad for persons concerned with training to enable them to become familiar with training practices in other countries;
(d) the loan of experienced personnel from one country to another to help organise training;
(e) the exchange of qualified personnel;
(f) the preparation and supply of textbooks and other materials for training;
(g) the systematic exchange of information on training questions;
(h) helping the industrialising countries to create and develop their national training systems and to acquire their own qualified teachers and instructors.
79. Consideration should be given to:
(a) the desirability and possibility of progressively assimilating training levels for the same occupation within a group of countries with a view to facilitating access to training abroad as well as occupational mobility;
(b) the possibility of reciprocal recognition of examination certificates in territories where training levels for the same occupation are comparable;
(c) the preparation and exchange of occupational information such as job descriptions which may be particularly useful in the training of migrants.
XVI. Effect on Earlier Recommendations
80. This Recommendation supersedes the Vocational Training Recommendation, 1939, the Apprenticeship Recommendation, 1939, and the Vocational Training (Adults) Recommendation, 1950.
R57 Recommendation concerning Vocational Training, 27 giugno 1939
R60 Recommendation concerning Apprenticeship, 28 giugno 1939
R77 Recommendation concerning the Organisation of Training for Sea Service, 29 giugno 1946
R88 Recommendation concerning the Vocational Training of Adults including Disabled Persons, 30 giugno 1950
R101 Recommendation concerning Vocational Training in Agriculture, 26 giugno 1956