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R136 Recommendation concerning Special Youth Employment and Training Schemes for Development Purposes




Geneva, 23 giugno 1970

The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation,

Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, and having met in its Fifty-fourth Session on 3 June 1970, and
Recalling the provisions of existing international labour Conventions and Recommendations on the training and employment of young persons, in particular the Unemployment (Young Persons) Recommendation, 1935, the Vocational Training Recommendation, 1962, and the Employment Policy Convention and Recommendation, 1964, and
Considering that special youth employment schemes and training schemes designed to give young persons the necessary skills to enable them to adapt to the pace of a changing society and to take an active part in the development of their country constitute an approach to youth employment problems, supplementary to those of existing instruments, and
Noting that the problems which this approach is intended to meet have only come into prominence on a wide scale in recent years, and
Considering that it is important to adopt an instrument setting out the objectives, methods and safeguards of such special schemes, in such manner that they would be fully consistent with earlier international labour standards relevant to conditions of service therein, particularly those of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, and the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957, and
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to special youth employment and training schemes for development purposes, which is the sixth item on the agenda of the session, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of a Recommendation,
adopts this twenty-third day of June of the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy, the following Recommendation, which may be cited as the Special Youth Schemes Recommendation, 1970.

I. Nature of Special Schemes

1.
(1) This Recommendation applies to special schemes designed to enable young persons to take part in activities directed to the economic and social development of their country and to acquire education, skills and experience facilitating their subsequent economic activity on a lasting basis and promoting their participation in society.
(2) These schemes are hereinafter referred to as special schemes.
2. The following may be regarded as special schemes for the purpose of this Recommendation:
(a) schemes which meet needs for youth employment and training not yet met by existing national educational or vocational training programmes or by normal opportunities on the employment market;
(b) schemes which enable young persons, especially unemployed young persons, who have educational or technical qualifications which are needed by the community for development, particularly in the economic, social, educational or health fields, to use their qualifications in the service of the community.

II. General Principles

3.
(1) Special schemes should be organised within the framework of national development plans where these exist and should, in particular, be fully integrated with human resources plans and programmes directed towards the achievement of full and productive employment as well as with regular programmes for the education and training of young people.
(2) Special schemes should have an interim character to meet current and pressing economic and social needs. They should not duplicate or prejudice other measures of economic policy or the development of regular educational or vocational training programmes nor be regarded as an alternative to these measures and these regular programmes.
(3) Special schemes should not be operated in a manner likely to lower labour standards nor should the services of participants therein be used for the advantage of private persons or undertakings.
(4) Special schemes should provide participants, where appropriate, with at least a minimum level of education.
4. The essential elements of every special scheme should include the safeguarding of human dignity and the development of the personality and of a sense of individual and social responsibility.
5. Special schemes should be administered without discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin; they should be used for the active promotion of equality of opportunity and treatment.
6. The purposes and objectives of each special scheme and the categories of participants should be clearly defined by the competent authority and should be subject to periodic review in the light of experience.
7.
(1) Participation in special schemes should be voluntary; exceptions may be permitted only by legislative action and where there is full compliance with the terms of existing international labour Conventions on forced labour and employment policy.
(2) Schemes in respect of which exceptions may be so permitted may include:
(a) schemes of education and training involving obligatory enrolment of unemployed young people within a definite period after the age limit of regular school attendance;
(b) schemes for young people who have previously accepted an obligation to serve for a definite period as a condition of being enabled to acquire education or technical qualifications of special value to the community for development.
(3) Where exceptions are so permitted, participants should, to the greatest possible extent, be given a free choice among different available forms of activity and different regions within the country and due account should be taken in their assignment of their qualifications and aptitudes.
8. The conditions of service of participants in special schemes should be clearly defined by the competent authority; they should be in conformity with the legal provisions governing minimum age for admission to employment and in harmony with other legal provisions applicable to young persons in regular training or in normal employment.
9. Participants should continue to have the opportunity of membership in youth or trade union organisations of their choice and of taking part in their activities.
10. There should be formal procedures for appeal by participants against decisions concerning their recruitment, their admission or their conditions of service, as well as informal grievance procedures to deal with minor complaints.

III. Schemes Which Meet Needs for Youth Employment and Training Not Yet Met by Existing National Educational or Vocational Training Programmes or by Normal Opportunities on the Employment Market

A. Purposes

11. As appropriate to national needs and circumstances, special schemes to which this Part of this Recommendation applies should serve one or more of the following specific purposes:
(a) to give young persons who are educationally or otherwise disadvantaged such education, skills and work habits as are necessary for useful and remunerative economic activity and for integration into society;
(b) to involve young persons in national economic and social development, including agricultural and rural development;
(c) to provide useful occupation related to economic and social development for young persons who would otherwise be unemployed.

B. Participation

12. In selecting young persons to participate in social schemes, the following should be taken into account:
(a) age and education, training and work experience if any, in relation, according to the nature of the scheme, to the aim of extending the opportunities of disadvantaged young persons, to ability to benefit from the scheme and to ability to contribute to the scheme;
(b) mental and physical aptitude for the tasks to be performed, both as a participant and subsequently;
(c) the extent to which the experience to be acquired in the scheme is likely to enhance the further opportunities of the young persons concerned and their potential usefulness in economic and social development.
13. Age-limits for participation which are appropriate to the training offered and the work to be performed in different kinds of special schemes should be specified by the competent authority and should take account of international labour standards regarding minimum age for admission to employment.
14. Special schemes should allow as large a number of young persons as possible to transfer to normal economic activity or to regular educational or vocational training programmes and the period of participation should accordingly be limited.
15. In all special schemes, appropriate action should be taken to ensure that before admission each participant fully understands all the conditions of service, including rules of conduct that may exist, the work content of the scheme, the required training and entitlements during the period and at the time of termination of service.

C. Content of Special Schemes

16. The content of special schemes should be adapted to and may vary, even within one scheme, according to the age, sex, educational and training level and capacities of the participants.
17. All special schemes should include a brief initial period for:
(a) instruction in matters of importance to all participants, such as, in particular, general safety and health rules and the detailed regulations governing activities under the scheme;
(b) accustoming participants to the conditions of life and work under the scheme and stimulating their interest;
(c) ascertaining the participants' aptitudes with a view to placing them in the type of activity best corresponding to these aptitudes.
18. Participants in special schemes should be provided with a complement of education, including civic, economic and social education, related to their needs and to the needs and aspirations of the country and should be informed of the role and functions of organisations established on a voluntary basis to represent the interests of workers and employers.
19. Special schemes designed, in whole or in part, to provide young persons who have limited opportunities with the skills necessary for useful economic activity should:
(a) concentrate on preparing participants for occupations in which they are likely to find opportunities for useful work, while giving fullest possible consideration to their occupational preferences;
(b) provide participants with a sound basis of practical skills and related theoretical knowledge;
(c) take account of the potential role of participants as a stimulating influence on others, and give them the qualifications necessary for such a role;
(d) facilitate and, as far as possible, ensure:
(i) transition to regular educational or vocational training programmes or to other special schemes for further education or training, particularly of those showing special abilities;
(ii) transition to normal economic acvitity, in particular by measures designed to ensure the acceptability, in such economic activity, of the qualifications acquired by participants.
20. Special schemes designed, in whole or in part, to involve young persons in economic or social development projects should:
(a) include training, at least to the extent of providing full training as required for the work to be undertaken, and training in relevant health and safety measures;
(b) aim at developing good work practices;
(c) employ participants, where possible, in fields for which they show aptitude and have some qualification.
21. Criteria for selecting work projects for the special schemes referred to in the preceding Paragraph should include the following:
(a) potential contribution to expansion of economic activity in the country or region and, in particular, to expansion of subsequent opportunities for the participants;
(b) training value, with particular reference to occupations in which participants are subsequently likely to find opportunities for useful work;
(c) value as an investment in economic and social development and economic viability, including costs in relation to results;
(d) need for special means of action, implying in particular that the work of participants will not be in unfair competition with that of workers in normal employment.

D. Conditions of Service

22. The conditions of service should comply at least with the following standards:
(a) the duration of service should not normally exceed two years;
(b) certain grounds, such as medical reasons, or family or personal difficulties, should be recognised as justifying the release of participants before the expiry of the normal period of service;
(c) the hours spent in a day and in a week on work and training should be so limited as to allow sufficient time for education and for rest as well as leisure activities;
(d) in addition to such adequate accommodation, food and clothing as may be appropriate to the nature of the special scheme, participants should receive a payment in cash and be offered the opportunity and incentive to accumulate some savings;
(e) in special schemes with a duration of service of one year or more, participants should be granted an annual holiday, where possible with free travel to and from their homes;
(f) as far as possible, participants should be covered by social security provisions applicable to persons working under normal contracts; in any event there should be arrangements for free medical care of participants and for compensation in respect of incapacity or death resulting from injury or illness contracted in the special scheme.

E. Selection and Training of Staff

23. All special schemes should include arrangements which ensure adequate supervision of participants by trained staff having access to technical and pedagogical guidance.
24.
(1) In the selection of staff, emphasis should be placed not only on satisfactory qualifications for and experience in the work to be performed, but also on understanding of young persons, on qualities of leadership and on adaptability. At least some members of the staff should have experience of normal employment outside special schemes.
(2) All possible sources of recruitment of staff should be explored, including the possibility of encouraging participants in special schemes who have shown qualities of leadership to prepare themselves for staff positions.
25. Training of supervisory and other technical staff should include, in addition to such instruction in vocational specialities as may be necessary, at least the following:
(a) training in instruction techniques, with particular emphasis on those used in training young persons;
(b) basic instruction in human relations, with special reference to motivation and work attitudes;
(c) training in work organisation, including the assignment of duties according to the abilities and training level of participants.
26. Training of administrative staff should include, in addition to such instruction in vocational specialities as may be necessary, at least the following:
(a) instruction designed to give the persons concerned an understanding of the objectives of the special scheme and knowledge of applicable labour and youth protection legislation, and of specific rules and regulations governing the schemes;
(b) instruction to provide a sufficient knowledge of the technical aspects of the work of the scheme;
(c) such instruction in human relations as will facilitate good relations with supervisory and other technical staff and with participants.

F. Assistance to Participants for Their Occupational Future

27. During service in a special scheme, participants should be given information and guidance to assist them in making decisions regarding their occupational future.
28. Participants showing special aptitudes should be helped in all appropriate ways to continue their education and training outside the special scheme on completion of service.
29. Special and immediate efforts should be made to integrate participants rapidly in normal economic activity on completion of their term of service; these should be in addition to the regular efforts by the employment services and all other appropriate bodies.
30. The release of participants from special schemes should as far as possible be related, in time and in number, to the capacity of the economy to absorb new entrants into gainful activity: Provided that in exceptional schemes with a compulsary element the individual's right to leave the scheme after the period of service originally specified should be ensured.
31. Assistance, wherever possible through existing institutions, to former participants who establish themselves on their own account, or as members of a group, might include:
(a) promotion of access to credit, marketing and saving facilities;
(b) continuing contact to provide encouragement and necessary technical managerial advice;
(c) in the case of co-operatives, financial and administrative aid as provided for in the Co-operatives (Developing Countries) Recommendation, 1966.
32. To the extent that resources permit, participants should receive on satisfactory completion of service a payment in cash or a payment in kind, such as a tool-kit, designed to assist their establishment in normal economic activity.

IV. Schemes Which Enable Young Persons Who Have Educational or Technical Qualifications Which Are Needed by the Community for Development to Use Their Qualifications in the Service of the Community

33. Special schemes to which this Part of this Recommendation applies should stimulate the interest of young persons in the economic and social development of their country and develop a sense of responsibility to the community.
34. Participants should be employed in fields for which they are specially qualified or in closely related fields.
35. As necessary, the qualifications of participants should be supplemented with training in skills and methods needed for the tasks to be performed.
36. Arrangements should be made under which qualified guidance and advice on problems encountered in their assignment are readily available to participants.
37. The conditions of service should comply at least with the following standards:
(a) the duration of service should not normally exceed two years;
(b) certain grounds, such as medical reasons, or family or personal difficulties, should be recognised as justifying the release of participants before the expiry of the normal period of service;
(c) work and training schedules should take account of the need of participants for rest and leisure;
(d) in addition to such adequate board and lodging as may be appropriate to the nature of the special scheme, participants should receive an appropriate remuneration;
(e) in special schemes with a duration of service of one year or more, participants should be granted an annual holiday, where possible with free travel to and from their homes;
(f) participants should be covered by any appropriate social security provisions applicable to persons working under normal contracts; in any event there should be arrangements for free medical care of participants and for compensation in respect of incapacity or death resulting from injury or illness contracted in the special scheme.
38. Measures should be taken to facilitate the absorption of participants, after termination of service, into normal employment in their profession or occupation.

V. Administrative Arrangements

39. The direction and co-ordination of special schemes at the national level should be achieved by means of some appropriate body or bodies established by the competent authority.
40. The body or bodies should, wherever possible, include, in addition to government members, representatives of workers', employers' and youth organisations so as to ensure their active participation in the planning, operation, co-ordination, inspection and evaluation of the special schemes.
41. In the performance of these tasks the body or bodies should, as necessary, consult voluntary agencies and authorities responsible for such relevant fields as labour, education, economic affairs, agriculture, industry and social affairs.
42. The body or bodies should maintain continuous liaison with the authorities responsible for regular educational and training programmes, in order to ensure co-ordination with a view to the gradual elimination of special schemes as rapidly as possible.
43. The active participation of local authorities should be sought in relation to the choice and implementation of projects within the framework of special schemes.
44. When establishing special schemes, the competent authority should endeavour to provide sufficient financial and material resources and the necessary qualified staff to ensure their full implementation. In this connection particular attention should be given to ways in which the schemes could generate their own sources of income. No financial contribution should be required from the participant or his family.
45. Provision should be made for the systematic inspection and auditing of special schemes.
46. Organisation at the local level should be such as to train and encourage the participants gradually to take a share in the administration of their scheme.

VI. International Co-operation

47. As regards special schemes under which young persons from one country participate in activities directed to the development of another country, the competent authorities and bodies concerned should apply the relevant provisions of this Recommendation as fully as possible in respect of matters within their jurisdiction and should co-operate with each other with a view both to ensuring the application of such provisions to matters requiring joint action and to resolving any difficulties which may arise in connection with such application.


Note:
• R45 Recommendation concerning Unemployment among Young Persons, 25 giugno 1935
• R117 Recommendation concerning Vocational Training, 27 giugno 1962
• R122 Recommendation concerning Employment Policy, 9 luglio 1964
• R127 Recommendation concerning the Role of Co-operatives in the Economic and Social Development of Developing Countries, 21 giugno 1966
• C29 Convenzione sul lavoro forzato e obbligatorio, 21 giugno 1930
• C105 Convenzione sull’abolizione del lavoro forzato, 25 giugno 1957
• C122 Convention concerning Employment Policy, 9 luglio 1964

Fonte: ILO