ILO International Labour Organization
Paweł Gmyrek, Janine Berg, David Bescond

ILO Working Paper 96
August / 2023

Generative AI and Jobs: A global analysis of potential effects on job quantity and quality

Table of contents
About the authors
1 Methods and Data
1.1. ISCO data on occupations and tasks
1.2. Prompt design and sequence
2 Assessment of the Predictions, Robustness Tests and the Bounds for Analysis
3 Results

3.1. Automation vs augmentation: distribution of scores across tasks and occupations
4 Exposed occupations as a share of employment: global and income-based estimates
4.1. Augmentation vs Automation: ILO microdata
4.2. Augmentation vs Automation: global estimate
4.3. The big unknown
5 Managing the transition: Policies to address automation, augmentation and the growing digital divide
5.1 Mitigating the negative effects of automation
5.2 Ensuring job quality under augmentation
5.3 Addressing the digital divide
Appendix 1. Countries with missing ISCO-08 4-digit data: estimation procedure
Acknowledgements and use of GPT

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